Senin, 11 April 2011

 KALIMANTAN ISLAND HISTORY

   Borneo is an island located in the northern island of Java and west of the island of Sulawesi. Divided into the territory of Brunei, Indonesia and Malaysia.
Formerly the name of the third largest island in this world is Warunadwipa which means Lord of the Sea Islands. Often called the whole island of Borneo is called Kalimantan, while parts of Indonesia, Malaysia and the region known as Sarawak and Sabah. There are also the sultanate of Brunei. In ancient times, Borneo is the name used by the colonial British and Dutch, while the name used by residents of the island of Kalimantan, Indonesia. In the Indonesian language first, North Borneo North Borneo is the name for (Sabah), but in the sense now of North Borneo is the northern part of East Kalimantan. So in a broad sense includes the whole island of Kalimantan, Borneo, Kalimantan, while in the narrow sense refers only to the territory of Indonesia.


Etymology



    
First. Borneo from the Sultanate of Brunei Darussalam said that previously a large and wide empire (including Sarawak and Sabah in part because some of Sabah belonged to the sultanate of Sulu, Mindanao. The Portuguese traders called Borneo and is used by the Europeans. [1] In that Nagarakretagama Kakawin written 1365 years old ancient kingdom of Brunei called "Barune", so that some are calling it "Waruna Pura". But the natives call it the Pulo Klemantan.

    
Second. According to the descriptive Crowfurd Dictionary of the Indian Island (1856), said Kalimantan is the name of a type of mango so that the island of Borneo is the island of mango, but he added that it smells of fairy tales and does not popular.



    
Third. According to Drs. B. Ch. Chhabra MBRAS journal vol XV Part 3 p. 79 mentions the ancient Indian custom to name places suitable crops such as millet in Sanskrit language yawa so that the island was called yawadwipa known as the island of Java so that by analogy that the island is by the name of Amra-Dwipa Sanskrit or island mango.

    
Fourth. According to the C. Hose and Mac Dougall stated that the word originated from 6 classes Kalimantan local tribes namely Sea Dayak (Iban), Kayan, Kenyan, Klemantan, Munut, and Punan. In the essay, Natural Man, a Record from Borneo (1926), Hose C. explained that Klemantan is the new name used by the Malays.



    
Fifth. According to WH Treacher in British Borneo in the journal MBRAS (1889), wild mango unknown in northern Borneo. Anyway Borneo island has never been known as the yield of mango instead of the title may very well Sago Island (island Sago) because the word was the original name Lamantah raw sago.

    
Sixth. According to Prof. Dr. Slamet Muljana in his book Sriwijaya (LKIS 2006), said Borneo is not the original Malay word but said the loan as well as the Malay word, which originated from India melayu (Malay which means mountain). Kalimantan or Klemantan derived from Sanskrit, Kalamanthana island where the air is very hot or burn (cal [a]: season, time and Manthan [a]: burn). Because the vowel a at time and manthana according to custom does not spoken, then uttered Kalmantan Kalamanthana later called Klemantan or Quallamontan natives who eventually reduced to Borneo.


Other Names.

    
Kingdom Singasari called "Bakulapura" ie colonies located in southwestern Borneo. Bakula tree in Sanskrit means promontory (mismusops alengi) so Bakulapura get Malay name to "Tanjungpura" shall mean the land / tree island kingdom Tanjungpura promontory that is the name that is often used as the name of the island.

    
Kingdom of Majapahit in the Nagara Kakawin Kretagama, written in 1365 called "Tanjungnagara" which also include such Saludung Philippines (Manila) and the Sulu Archipelago.

    
Hikayat Banjar an ancient chronicle of South Kalimantan is the final chapter was written in 1663, but the script Hikayat Banjar is itself derived from the script with a text more ancient Malay kingdom on the Hindu, in it called the island of Borneo to the Malay name of the island "tip Land ". The term tip of this land came under the form of geomorphology of South Kalimantan region in the days of yore in the form of a peninsula formed by a row of Mount Meratus that juts into the sea of ​​Java. This situation is identical to the shape of the tip of the Malay Peninsula of the State of Johor which is often called "Edge of Land" in ancient Malay manuscripts. Peninsula Land is what bersetentangan tip with the territory of Majapahit in East Java which later gained Tanjungnagara name means island-shaped headland / peninsula.

    
"Nusa Kencana" is the name of the island of Borneo in the Old Javanese texts such as the King Jayabaya Divination at the end of Majapahit on Java land will be occupied by the Japanese people who come from the direction of Nusa Kencana designation for the area that is now the province of South Kalimantan, as proven before crossed over to Java, the Japanese army first time control of the capital of Banjarmasin Kalimantan. Nusa Kencana often described as the Land Affairs Sabrang named as the embodiment of primitive Alengka residence across the Land of the giants in Java. In the Land of Land Dayak Sabrang there is mentioned in the Supreme Fibre Parwa.

    
"Island of Banjar" designation in the 17th century from the Gowa, Selaparang (Lombok), Sumbawa and Bima because these kingdoms have bilateral relations with the Sultanate of Banjar.

    
"Big Java" name of Italian explorer Marco Polo.

    
"Jaba Daje" means "Java in the North (from the island of Madura) Madurese designation of a new island of Borneo in the 20th century.
Kalimantan in the name

    
SI Kalimantan, fusion of the Unity Youth Marabahan with local youth organizations in South Kalimantan.

    
Kalimantan Raya, a newspaper published in Banjarmasin by AA Hamidhan on March 5, 1942.

    
Zuider en Ooster Afdeeling van Borneo, South and East Kalimantan region of South Kalimantan, Central Kalimantan and East Kalimantan, which ruled until 1942 a resident of capital is Banjarmasin.

    
North Borneo Federation (English: The North Borneo Federation) a political entity that was proposed by politicians Brunei, Sheikh Azahari bin Sheikh Mahmud. If realized, the territory covers the British colony of Sarawak, Colony of British North Borneo (now known as Sabah), and the British protectorate of Brunei.

    
North Kalimantan National Army (National Military North Borneo, abbreviated TNKU in Bahasa Melayu) is the military wing which appeared in North Borneo in Brunei during the Revolution.


Early history


Kalimantan Island was in the middle of Southeast Asia because it is a lot of island culture and political influence of the surrounding islands. Around the year 400 the island of Borneo has entered the era of history to be found relics of the kingdom of Kutai inscription Yupa but the development of civilization relatively slower progress than other islands due to geographical constraints and population are small.

 
In the 14th century Odorico da Pordenone, a Catholic monk for visiting Borneo. Around the year 1362 under the leadership of Majapahit Patih Gajah Mada University to expand its power to the island of Borneo, namely countries: Kapuas, Katingan, Sampit, Ungga City, Town Waringin, Sambas, Lawai, Kadandangan, Landa, Samadang, Tirem, bitterly, Barune, Kalka , Saludung (Maynila), Solot, Sand, Barito, Sawaku, Tabalong, Cape Kutei and Malano remains the most important on the island Tanjungpura. [2]
At the time of the Dutch East Indies, Borneo known as Borneo. This does not mean the name of Borneo are not known. In the letters Tamjidillah Prince of the Kingdom of Banjar in 1857 to the Dutch Resident in Banjarmasin he mentions the island of Borneo, not the island. This shows that among the population, more commonly known name of Kalimantan on Borneo name used in the Dutch East Indies colonial administration. Kalimantan name again became popular in around the 1940's.
States Period of the Republic of Indonesia
After taking over Borneo from the hands of Japan, urged the Federal NICA Kalimantan to immediately establish the State of East Kalimantan, Indonesia following the country who have stood. Thus was established the Board of West Kalimantan on 28 October 1946, which became the Special Region of West Kalimantan on May 27, 1947; with the Regional Head, Sultan Hamid II of Pontianak Sultanate with the rank of Major General. Territory consists of 13 kingdoms as autonomous as in the Dutch East Indies era of Sambas, Pontianak, Mempawah, Hedgehog, Kubu, Tayan, Meliau, Sekadau, Sintang, Selimbau, Simpang, Sukadana and Matan.
Prince Mohamed Noor

Great Dayak Council was formed on December 7, 1946, and thereafter on January 8, 1947 established the Board Pagatan, Sea Island Council and the Board Cantung Sampanahan who joined the Federation of East Kalimantan. Then on February 18, 1947 formed the Federation Council of Sand and East Kalimantan, which is finally on August 26, 1947 joined the Board of East Kalimantan. Further Areas of East Kalimantan to East Kalimantan with the Special Region Regional Head, Sultan Aji Muhammad Parikesit of the Sultanate of Kutai with the rank of Colonel. Banjar area that has caught federal district Banjar Council was finally established on 14 January 1948.


Governor of Government in the government of Indonesia in Yogyakarta, namely Prince Mohamed Noor, send Little Riwut and Hasan Basry in the mission to defend the independence struggle to confront the power of NICA. On May 17, 1949, Lt. Col. Hassan Basry as Governor of Region IV of Defense Army Navy a Proclamation proclaiming Kalimantan Kalimantan whose contents that "Kalimantan" remains as an integral part of the Republic of Indonesia which was proclaimed on 17 August 1945. Government Military Governor of this effort is a rival to the formation of the Dutch established the Board of Banjar.


In the United States of Indonesia, Kalimantan into several units of-state, namely:

    
Special Region of West Kalimantan with its capital Pontianak.

    
Federation of East Kalimantan capital of Samarinda.

    
Dayak Besar with temporary capital of Banjarmasin.

    
Banjar area with the capital of Banjarmasin.

    
Federation of East Kalimantan, with capital of Kotabaru.

 
Since 1938, Borneo-Netherlands East Indies (Borneo) is a unit of administrative regions under a governor, based in Banjarmasin, and has representatives in Volksrad. Vice Kalimantan in Volksrad:

    
Prince Muhammad Ali (before 1935) replaced his son,

    
Prince Mohamed Noor (1935-1939) replaced by,

    
Mr. Tadjuddin Noor (1939-1945)

    
Governor of Borneo



    
Dr. A. Haga (1938-1942), governor of Kegubernuran based in Banjarmasin Borneo

    
Prince Musa Ardi Kesuma (1942-1945), South Kalimantan and Central Ridzie

    
Ir. Prince Mohamed Noor (2 September 1945), based in Yogyakarta Kalimantan governor

    
dr. Moerjani (August 14, 1950), based in Banjarmasin Kalimantan governor

    
Mas Subarjo (1953-1955), based in Banjarmasin Kalimantan governor

    
Raden Tumenggung Arya Milono (1955-1957), based in Banjarmasin Kalimantan governor.


Re-establishment of Kalimantan province on August 14, 1950 after the dissolution of the RIS, celebrated as the Day of South Kalimantan Province (formerly called the province of Kalimantan, one of the first province). Until 1956, Borneo was divided into 3 provinces, namely South Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, West Kalimantan. Then, on May 23, 1957, officially formed the province of Central Kalimantan, formerly known as Local Dayak Besar as a form of secession of South Kalimantan, stood to be the 17th province independent.

 
Geography.Borneo Island is located on the north island of Java, east of the Straits of Melaka, west of the island of Sulawesi and the southern Philippines. Size of Borneo island is 743,330 km ².


Borneo Island is surrounded by South China Sea in the west and north-west, the Sulu Sea in the north-east, the Celebes Sea and Makassar Strait in the east and the Java Sea and the Strait of Karimata in the south.


Mount Kinabalu (4095 m) located in Sabah, Malaysia is the highest location in Kalimantan.


The longest rivers are the Kapuas River in Borneo (1143 km) in West Kalimantan, Indonesia, Barito River (880 km) in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, Mahakam River (980 km) in East Kalimantan, Indonesia, chopped River (562.5 km ) in Sarawak, Malaysia.


Administration.
In Borneo there are some areas of Indonesia and Malaysia. Territory Brunei all situated in the island.Indonesia


Indonesian region of Borneo is divided into four provinces:



    
Central Kalimantan capital of Palangkaraya

    
East Kalimantan capital of Samarinda

    
South Kalimantan capital of Banjarmasin

    
West Kalimantan capital of Pontianak with


Countries and territories in the Fellowship of Malaysia Borneo:



    
Sarawak

    
Sabah

    
Wilayah Persekutuan Labuan (off the coast of Sabah)


Language
Indigenous languages ​​in the Austronesian languages ​​of Borneo is a Malayo-Polynesian family.


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